In this chapter, we focused on a number of interesting applications of genetic engineering, genomics, and biotechnology. At the same time, we found many opportunities to consider the methods and reasoning by which much of this information was acquired. From the explanations given in the chapter, what answers would you propose to the following fundamental questions: (a) How do we determine whether genetically modified plants are safe for human consumption? (b) What experimental evidence confirms that we have introduced a useful gene into a transgenic organism and that it performs as we anticipate? (c) How can we use DNA analysis to determine that a human fetus has sickle-cell anemia? (d) How can DNA microarray analysis be used to identify specific genes that are being expressed in a specific tissue? (e) How are GWAS carried out, and what information do they provide? (f) What are some of the technical reasons why gene therapy is difficult to carry out effectively?
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