Assignment: Gender Influences at Work

Assignment: Gender Influences at Work

Ideally, people select and pursue their careers based on their personal interests, their abilities, and their desire to make a contribution in/to a particular arena. However, the ideal is not always realized for a variety of reasons. One such reason is the presence of gender stereotyping related to aptitude for a specific career or skill, jobs, and careers, in general. Gender stereotyping may begin in school with girls and boys who are encouraged to pursue careers that stereotypically appear to be more fitting for one gender or the other. This type of stereotyping often results in discrimination and harassment in the school or training for the field, discrimination in the workplace, closed doors for some types of employment, and limited career opportunities.

Psychologists have posed many justifications for the stereotyping that impacts career choice and career success. It may be that boys and girls are directed differently to specific careers beginning in early education. It may be that parents influence their children toward or away from specific career paths by their expectations, dialogue, and even toys they give their children to play with. It may be the stereotyping and resulting discrimination related to training and education that influences the career paths of men and women. It may be the influence from society in general related to what are considered to be appropriate roles for both men and women.

Additional gender-related challenges exist once men and women get to the workplace. Though discrimination and sexual harassment are often seen as women’s issues, men also experience discrimination and sexual harassment, especially in typically female-dominated occupations such as teaching, childcare, nursing, and some administrative positions. And while there may be a reduction in the occurrence of stereotyping, women historically have experienced discrimination that results in not being hired or promoted to upper management positions, unequal pay for equal work, and “glass ceilings” in many fields including health care, engineering, science, math, and protective services, just to name a few.

Psychologists continue to look for answers about why men and women behave differently and are treated differently in the workplace. Common explanations include the differences in communication styles often seen in men and women, issues associated with power struggles in the workplace, and societal expectations regarding roles of men and women.

To prepare for this assignment:

  • Review Chapter 12 in the course text, Gender: Psychological Perspectives. Focus on the gender-related differences and similarities in issues related to career selection, career success, and the work environment.
  • Review the articles, “The Compassionate Sexist? How Benevolent Sexism Promotes and Undermines Gender Equality in the Workplace,” and “Gender Inequalities in the Workplace: The Effects of Organizational Structures, Processes, Practices, and Decision Makers’ Sexism.”
  • Think about one specific career path, such as architecture, engineering, science, nursing, business management, etc. Conduct research on the current gender-related statistics for the career path you have selected.
  • Consider the following questions, using the Week 6 Optional Resources or other resources of your choosing:
    • What is the workplace like, and how might workplace conditions, requirements, and/or environmental factors influence or be influenced by each gender?
    • Is the field typically a male- or female-dominated one? Why?
    • Is there a salary difference between the genders?
  • Think about the following questions:
    • How and why might boys and girls be directed differently to the career path you selected and researched?
    • What challenges might each gender face in getting a job in this area?
    • Once individuals enter this career, how might men and women be treated differently and how might they behave differently? What are the unique challenges each gender must address in order to succeed in this area?

The assignment (3–4 pages):

  • Select a career path (e.g., architecture, engineering, nursing, business management, etc.).
  • Analyze the impact that gender has in:
    • The career choice itself, including gender stereotyping within that career
    • Other factors that might influence career choice, obstacles to entering the career, and factors that impact career success
    • The work setting within that career, including factors that might lead to discrimination, communication differences that impact workplace success, issues related to power, and rates of sexual harassment

Note: Be sure to protect the identity of any persons you describe.

Note: Support the responses within your Assignment with evidence from the assigned Learning Resources, including in-text citations. Provide a reference list for resources you used for this Assignment

Piaget’s Theory of Adolescent Cognition

Piaget’s Theory of Adolescent Cognition

For this discussion:

  • Relate Piaget’s theory of adolescent cognition to adolescent behaviors seen today (choose two examples).
    • Are Piaget’s theories still relevant?
    • Explain why or why not, citing scholarly evidence to support your argument.

Support your response with APA-formatted citations from scholarly sources, including both those provided in this unit and any additional evidence you may have researched.

Explain how you might use the strategy and resource/tool to help you overcome the concerns or challenges you described.

A: ExemplaryB: Meets the StandardC: ProgressingF: EmergingPaper or writing Assignment is:

Points Range:42 (33.60%) – 45 (36.00%)

Responsive to and exceeds the requirements given in the instructions. It:

 Responds to the assigned or selected topic;
 Goes beyond what is required in some meaningful way (e.g., ideas contribute a new dimension to what we know about the topic, unearths something unanticipated);
 Is substantive and evidence-based;
 Demonstrates that the student has read, viewed, and considered the Learning Resources in the course and that the Paper topic connects in a meaningful way to the course content; and
 Is submitted by the due date.

Points Range:38 (30.40%) – 41 (32.80%)

Responsive to and meets the requirements given in the instructions. It:

 Responds to the assigned or selected topic;
 Is substantive and evidence-based;
 Demonstrates that the student has read, viewed, and considered the Learning Resources in the course and that the Paper topic connects in a meaningful way to the course content; and
 Is submitted by the due date.

Points Range:32 (25.60%) – 37 (29.60%)

Somewhat responsive to the requirements given in the instructions. It:

 Somewhat misses the point of the assigned or selected topic; and/or
 Lacks in substance, relying more on anecdotal than scholarly evidence; and/or
 Contains little evidence that the student has read, viewed, and considered the Learning Resources in the course and that the Paper topic connects in a meaningful way to the course content; and
 Is submitted by the due date.

Points Range:0 (0.00%) – 36 (28.80%)

Unresponsive to the requirements given in the instructions. It:

 Misses the point of the assigned or selected topic; and/or
 Relies primarily on anecdotal evidence; and/or
 Contains little evidence that the student has read, viewed, and considered the Learning Resources in the course and that the Paper topic connects in a meaningful way to the course content; and/or
 Is submitted past the late deadline.

Paper or writing Assignment demonstrates/provides:

Points Range:38 (30.40%) – 40 (32.00%)

 In-depth understanding and application of concepts and issues presented in the course (e.g., insightful interpretations or analyses; accurate and perceptive parallels, ideas, opinions, and conclusions), showing that the student has absorbed the general principles and ideas presented and makes inferences about the concepts/issues or connects them to other ideas;
 Rich and relevant examples;
 Thought-provoking ideas and interpretations, original thinking, new perspectives;
 Original and critical thinking; and  Mastery and thoughtful/ accurate application of knowledge and skills or strategies presented in the course.

Points Range:34 (27.20%) – 37 (29.60%)

 Understanding and application of the concepts and issues presented in the course, demonstrating that the student has absorbed the general principles and ideas presented;
 Relevant examples;
 Thought-provoking ideas and interpretations, some original thinking, and critical thinking;
 Mastery and application of knowledge and skills or strategies presented in the course.

Points Range:28 (22.40%) – 33 (26.40%)

 Minimal understanding of concepts and issues presented in the course, and, although generally accurate, displays some omissions and/or errors; and/or
 Few and/or irrelevant examples; and/or
 Few if any thought- provoking ideas, little original thinking; and/or
 “Regurgitated” knowledge rather than critical thinking;
 Little mastery of skills and/or numerous errors when using the knowledge, skills, or strategies presented in the course.

Points Range:0 (0.00%) – 37 (29.60%)

 A lack of understanding of the concepts and issues presented in the course, and/or application is inaccurate and contains many omissions and/or errors; and/or
 No examples or irrelevant examples; and/or
 No thought-provoking ideas or original thinking; and/or
 No critical thinking;
 Many critical errors when applying knowledge, skills, or strategies presented in the course.

Writing is:

Points Range:38 (30.40%) – 40 (32.00%)

Scholarly and exceeds graduate-level writing expectations. Paper:

 Uses language that is clear, concise, and appropriate;
 Has few if any errors in spelling, grammar, and syntax;
 Is extremely well organized, logical, clear, and never confuses the reader;
 Uses a preponderance of original language and uses direct quotes only when necessary and/or appropriate;
 Provides information about a source when citing or paraphrasing it;
 Consistently uses correct APA form and style (including citations, references, use of nonbiased language, clear organization, good editorial style, etc.) with very few or no errors.

Points Range:34 (27.20%) – 37 (29.60%)

Scholarly and meets graduate-level writing expectations. Paper:

 Uses language that is clear;
 Has a few errors in spelling, grammar, and syntax;
 Is well organized, logical, and clear;
 Uses original language and uses direct quotes when necessary and/or appropriate;
 Provides information about a source when citing or paraphrasing it;
 Provides correct APA citations about a source when citing or paraphrasing it.

Points Range:28 (22.40%) – 33 (26.40%)

Somewhat below graduate-level writing expectations. Paper:

 Uses language that is unclear and/or inappropriate; and/or
 Has more than occasional errors in spelling, grammar, and syntax and/or lacks correct APA citations; and/or
 Is poorly organized, is at times unclear and confusing, and has some problems with logical flow; and/or
 Reflects an underuse of original language and an overuse of direct quotes and paraphrases; and/or
 Sometimes lacks information about a source when citing or paraphrasing it.

Points Range:0 (0.00%) – 27 (21.60%)

Well below graduate-level writing expectations. Paper:

 Uses unclear and inappropriate language; and/or
 Has many errors in spelling, grammar, and syntax; and/or
 Lacks organization in a way that creates confusion for the reader; and/or
 Contains many direct quotes from original source materials and/or consistently and poorly paraphrases rather than using original language; and/or
 Lacks information about a source when citing or paraphrasing it and/or incorrect use of APA.

ASSIGNMENT…

Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:

  • Describe any concerns you have or challenges you might anticipate as an online learner.
  • Identify one strategy and one resource/tool from the Learning Resources that may contribute to a successful online learning experience.
  • Explain how you might use the strategy and resource/tool to help you overcome the concerns or challenges you described.
  • Identify two personal weaknesses or limitations that you might need to improve upon in order to ensure your success in this program, and explain why.

Reference the resources from this week that you will use to address these personal weaknesses or limitations. Provide at least one additional strategy and/or resource (not included in the Learning Resources) to address the personal weakness or limitation you identified.

Reminder: Proper formatting and APA citations are required.

Refer to the Writing Template for Course Papers for additional guidance.

References…

https://academicanswers.waldenu.edu/faq/73209

The purpose of this writing assignment is to apply critical thinking skills to conduct a real-life application of operant conditioning.

Operant Conditioning (Worth 30 Points)

The purpose of this writing assignment is to apply critical thinking skills to conduct a real-life application of operant conditioning.

Learning Objectives 3c and 5c

Select a target behavior that you would like to strengthen in a person or animal in which you have daily contact. For example, you may choose to have your child pick up his/her toys more often; try to get more hugs from your significant other; train a dog to sit on command, etc.  Try to avoid selecting a target behavior you would like to weaken, which would require the use of positive punishment (punishment by application) or negative punishment (punishment by removal).

Step 1 Written Portion: State your target behavior. If you choose a target behavior in an animal, include the animal’s name, age, gender, and breed.  If you choose a target behavior in a person, include his or her first name, age, and relationship to you (such as a friend, co-worker, child, or significant other).

Once you have decided on a target behavior, collect data over the next day to find out how often the target behavior occurs without your guidance or reinforcement. In other words, just observe and count the times the target behavior occurs on its own. For example, if you choose the following target behavior: Teaching your dog how to roll over on command, then you would give the roll over command and count the times the dog rolls over (without your interference or guidance). This data is called the baseline frequency.

Step 2 Written Portion:  State your baseline frequency data. Describe your data collection, including the number of hours observed, where you observed the target behavior, and any other relevant information. Also, report any biases that may be introduced in your baseline frequency data collection. For instance, if you are doing your baseline frequency count on the number of times your dog sits on command, and you observe your pet during an obedience class, a bias will be introduced.

*Please note*: A baseline frequency of one day will implement a bias in your study. Report the bias, stating that a baseline frequency observed and recorded over several days may produce a more valid and reliable record of the target behavior.

On the next day, begin the process of operant conditioning. The first time the target behavior occurs; reinforce it with a behavior that you believe has meaning to the person/animal. Think through your operant conditioning terms. For instance, if the target behavior occurs, and you respond with “Great Job,” your compliment is positive reinforcement with a secondary/conditioned reinforcer, which increases the likelihood the target behavior will occur again.

If the baseline frequency is 0, in other words, if the target behavior does not occur on its own, then you will need to employ the technique of shaping.

Step 3 Written Portion: Write a paragraph reporting the number of times the target behavior occurred during the operant conditioning phase.  Explain why you think the target behavior increased, decreased, or stayed the same.  Use your operant conditioning terms to describe what you did, including your use of primary or secondary/conditioned reinforcers of positive reinforcement.  Also, explain if and how you used escape or avoidance conditioning of negative reinforcement. In addition, identify if you stayed with one type of effective reinforcer or if you used many.  Also, if you used shaping because the target behavior did not occur on its own, discuss how you applied shaping. Lastly, describe what you may have done differently, and report any conclusions you may have about your operant conditioning efforts

Do you think that conscious (voluntary) movements must be organized differently from unconscious (involuntary) movements? What does the evidence tell you?

Post 1:

Discussion section: Behavior is movement more than anything else. The output of the brain is seen chiefly in the secretions of the glands and the contraction of the muscles. We will consider the effects of hormonal secretions in the next topic. This week, consider our movements, which reflect the influences of the state of the body and the pressures of the environment.

Discussion 4 – How the Brain Coordinates Our Movements

Step 1: Address the following questions in discussion in one paragraph for each of the three question items:

Questions

1. Do you think that conscious (voluntary) movements must be organized differently from unconscious (involuntary) movements? What does the evidence tell you?

2. Can you point to any body movements that do not involve reflexes–or some reflexes that do not involve bodily movement?

Discuss your opinion of this article. What did you think about the findings? What were potential limitations?

Assignment:  Book

Myers, D.G., & Twenge, J.M. (2012). Social Psychology (11th Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

  1. Read Chapter 4 in the textbook.
  2. Select and read one of the journal articles below or search through your own through Northwest’s online Datasbases.
    1. Festinger, L., & Carlsmith, J. M. (1959). Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58(2), 203-210. doi:10.1037/h0041593
    2. Joule, R. (1991). Double forced compliance: A new paradigm in cognitive dissonance theory. The Journal of Social Psychology, 131(6), 839-845. doi:10.1080/00224545.1991.9924671
    3. Chiou, W., & Wan, C. (2007). Using cognitive dissonance to induce adolescents’ escaping from the claw of online gaming: The roles of personal responsibility and justification of cost. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 10(5), 663-670. doi:10.1089/cpb.2007.9972
    4. Gibbons, F. X., Eggleston, T. J., & Benthin, A. C. (1997). Cognitive reactions to smoking relapse: The reciprocal relation between dissonance and self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72(1), 184-195. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.72.1.184
  3. Write a brief review of the chosen journal article, include the following details:
    1. Identify the hypothesis/es for the study.
    2. Summarize the methods and results.
  4. Discuss your opinion of this article. What did you think about the findings? What were potential limitations?
  5. Integrate concepts within Chapter 4 of the textbook into your paper that relate to the topic.

Instructions:

  • Paper length should be approximately 2-3 pages in length (approximately 500- 750 words).
  • Use APA style, including a cover page and reference page (not included in page length)
  • Introductory paragraph, setting forth a clear statement of your assignment.
  • Conclusion, a concise paragraph that reaffirms your assignment.
  • Cite a minimum of 2 sources (APA). Include the textbook as one of the sources.  Be sure to cite the article you chose from above.

Draw on both your own experience and the information from your readings, and explain how and why those characteristics differ due to age.

Major Characteristics of Adolescent Society

In this unit, you have reviewed major characteristics of adolescent societies. For this discussion:

  • Choose two to three characteristics that differ from other phases in the lifespan.
  • Draw on both your own experience and the information from your readings, and explain how and why those characteristics differ due to age.

Support your response with APA-formatted citations from scholarly sources, including both those provided in this unit and any additional evidence you may have researched.

For this assignment, you will select a topic for your grant proposal (i.e., Final Project due in Week Six).

Grant Proposal – Topic, Specific Aims and Bibliography

For this assignment, you will select a topic for your grant proposal (i.e., Final Project due in Week Six). Then you will write the Specific Aims section and create a preliminary bibliography. You will conduct a search in the Ashford University Library and/or on PubMedCentral (Links to an external site.)  to locate at least 10 scholarly peer-reviewed articles that are relevant and that support your funding request.  Create your preliminary annotated bibliography and ensure that your resources are relevant and supportive of the Specific Aims as well as the Background and Significance sections of your grant proposal (the Background and Significance sections will be written in Week Three). See a sample annotated bibliography (Links to an external site.)  from the Ashford Writing Center for assistance.

Compose the Specific Aims section following the Grant Proposal Guidelines (Links to an external site.). See the Sample Grant Proposal Template (Links to an external site.) as an example and use it as a template for your Grant Proposal. The assignment should be one page, excluding the bibliography.

What is the workplace like and how might workplace conditions, requirements, and/or environmental factors influence or be influenced by each gender?

Instructions

Application: Gender Influences at Work

Ideally, people select and pursue their careers based on their personal interests, their abilities, and their desire to make a contribution in/to a particular arena. However, the ideal is not always realized for a variety of reasons. One such reason is the presence of gender stereotyping related to aptitude for a specific career or skill, jobs, and careers, in general. Gender stereotyping may begin in school with girls and boys who are encouraged to pursue careers that stereotypically appear to be more fitting for one gender or the other. This type of stereotyping often results in discrimination and harassment in the school or training for the field, discrimination in the workplace, closed doors for some types of employment, and limited career opportunities.

Psychologists have posed many justifications for the stereotyping that impacts career choice and career success. It may be that boys and girls are directed differently to specific careers beginning in early education. It may be that parents influence their children toward or away from specific career paths by their expectations, dialogue, and even toys they give their children to play with. It may be the stereotyping and resulting discrimination related to training and education that influences the career paths of men and women. It may be the influence from society in general related to what are considered to be appropriate roles for both men and women.

Additional gender-related challenges exist once men and women get to the workplace. Though discrimination and sexual harassment are often seen as women’s issues, men also experience discrimination and sexual harassment, especially in typically female-dominated occupations such as teaching, childcare, nursing, and some administrative positions. And while there may be a reduction in the occurrence of stereotyping, women historically have experienced discrimination that results in not being hired or promoted to upper management positions, unequal pay for equal work, and “glass ceilings” in many fields including health care, engineering, science, math, and protective services, just to name a few.

Psychologists continue to look for answers about why men and women behave differently and are treated differently in the workplace. Common explanations include the differences in communication styles often seen in men and women, issues associated with power struggles in the workplace, and societal expectations regarding roles of men and women.

To prepare for this assignment:

Review Chapter 12 in the course text, Gender: Psychological Perspectives. Focus on the gender-related differences and similarities in issues related to career selection, career success, and the work environment.

Think about one specific career path, such as architecture, engineering, science, nursing, business management, etc. Conduct research on the current gender-related statistics for the career path you have selected.

Consider the following questions, using the Week 6 Optional Resources or other resources of your choosing:

What is the workplace like and how might workplace conditions, requirements, and/or environmental factors influence or be influenced by each gender?

Is the field typically a male- or female-dominated one? Why?

Is there a salary difference between the genders?

Think about the following questions:

How and why might boys and girls be directed differently to the career path you selected and researched?

What challenges might each gender face in getting a job in this area?

Once individuals enter this career, how might men and women be treated differently and how might they behave differently? What are the unique challenges each gender must address in order to succeed in this area?

The assignment (2–3 pages):

Select a career path (e.g., architecture, engineering, nursing, business management, etc.).

Analyze the impact that gender has in:

The career choice itself, including gender stereotyping within that career, other factors that might influence career choice, obstacles to entering the career, and factors that impact career success.

The work setting within that career, including factors that might lead to discrimination, communication differences that impact workplace success, issues related to power, and rates of sexual harassment.

Why do you subscribe to these theories as apt descriptors?

Theories in Adolescent Psychology

For this discussion:

  • Choose at least two major psychological theories of adolescent development that you believe best describe adolescence in today’s world.
    • Why do you subscribe to these theories as apt descriptors?
    • What makes them relevant?

Support your response with APA-formatted citations from scholarly sources, including both those provided in this unit and any additional evidence you may have researched.