# What conclusions can we draw from these results? What conclusions can we NOT make using these results?

**Study Description: A school educator is interested in determining the relationships between grade point average (GPA) and IQ scores among ninth graders. The educator takes a random sample of 40 ninth graders aged 14 years old and administers the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). The WISC-IV includes a Full Scale IQ (FSIQ; however for this assignment we will just call it IQ) that comprises verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed skills. **

**Output file: See ****Week_2_SPSS_Output.pdf****.**

**Answer the following Questions:**

**Hypothesis – Formulate a hypothesis about the two variables. What do you****think****is the relationship between IQ scores and GPA?****Variables – Identify the variables and each of their attributes: discrete or continuous, quantitative or categorical, scale of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio), and independent or dependent.****Descriptive statistics – Write an overview of the descriptive statistics (at least two paragraphs), including the appropriate and necessary statistical results within sentences and in proper APA formatting. Be sure to provide sufficient explanation for any numbers presented. Include the following in your discussion:****How do the measures of central tendency and variability provide us with an overview of the characteristics and shape of the distribution of each variable? What are these statistic****Keeping in mind that the WISC-IV has a mean of 100 and Standard Deviation of 15, what assumptions could you make about the IQ scores and suitability of this IQ test for the group of students sampled?****Keeping in mind that the WISC-IV has a mean of 100 and Standard Deviation of 15, how many students’ IQ scores in this sample are within one standard deviation below the test’s mean? Two standard deviations below the test’s mean? What percentage of students in this sample had an IQ score less than or equal to 70? An IQ score greater or equal to 100?**

**Correlation – Write an overview of the results of the correlation (at least two paragraphs), including the appropriate and necessary statistical results within sentences and in proper APA formatting. Be sure to provide sufficient explanation for any numbers presented. Consider the following in your overview and conclusions:****Is there a significant correlation between IQ scores and GPA? If so, what does a significant correlation mean?****Using the correlation table and scatterplot, explain whether the relationship is positive, negative, or no correlation.****Describe the strength of the relationship (e.g. very strong, moderate, weak, etc.).****What do the results tell us about our hypotheses?****What conclusions can we draw from these results? What conclusions can we NOT make using these results?****What issues regarding the sample used or how the data was collected should be considered in the interpretation of the data?**

**Regression – Write an overview of the results of the regression (1 paragraph), including the appropriate and necessary statistical results within sentences and in proper APA formatting. Be sure to provide sufficient explanation for any numbers presented. Consider the following in your overview and conclusions:****In the regression, what variable is the dependent variable and what variable is the independent variable?****What do the regression results tell us about IQ scores and GPA?**

**This assignment is worth 10 points of the total course grade.**

**This assignment aligns with the following weekly outcomes: 1, 3.**

**This assignment aligns with the following course outcomes: 1, 2, 3.**

**Description**: SPSS Output Summary: Descriptive Statistics, Correlation, and Regression Study Description: A school educator is interested in determining the relationships between grade point average (GPA) and IQ scores among ninth graders. The educator takes a random sample of 40 ninth graders aged 14 years old and administers the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). The WISC-IV includes a Full Scale IQ (FSIQ; however for this assignment we will just call it IQ) that comprises verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed skills. Output file: See Week 2 SPSS Output.pdf file in the Week 2 Assignment folder. Answer the following Questions: a. Hypothesis – Formulate a hypothesis about the two variables. What do you think is the relationship between IQ scores and GPA? b. Variables – Identify the variables and each of their attributes: discrete or continuous, quantitative or categorical, scale of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio), and independent or dependent. c. Descriptive statistics – Write an overview of the descriptive statistics (at least two paragraphs), including the appropriate and necessary statistical results within sentences and in proper APA formatting. Be sure to provide sufficient explanation for any numbers presented. Include the following in your discussion: § How do the measures of central tendency and variability provide us with an overview of the characteristics and shape of the distribution of each variable? What are these statistics? § Keeping in mind that the WISC-IV has a mean of 100 and Standard Deviation of 15, what assumptions could you make about the IQ scores and suitability of this IQ test for the group of students sampled? § Keeping in mind that the WISC-IV has a mean of 100 and Standard Deviation of 15, how many students’ IQ scores in this sample are within one standard deviation below the test’s mean? Two standard deviations below the test’s mean? What percentage of students in this sample had an IQ score less than or equal to 70? An IQ score greater or equal to 100? d. Correlation – Write an overview of the results of the correlation (at least two paragraphs), including the appropriate and necessary statistical results within sentences and in proper APA formatting. Be sure to provide sufficient explanation for any numbers presented. Consider the following in your overview and conclusions: § Is there a significant correlation between IQ scores and GPA? If so, what does a significant correlation mean? § Using the correlation table and scatterplot, explain whether the relationship is positive, negative, or no correlation. § Describe the strength of the relationship (e.g. very strong, moderate, weak, etc.). § What do the results tell us about our hypotheses? § What conclusions can we draw from these results? What conclusions can we NOT make using these results? § What issues regarding the sample used or how the data was collected should be considered in the interpretation of the data? e. Regression – Write an overview of the results of the regression (1 paragraph), including the appropriate and necessary statistical results within sentences and in proper APA formatting. Be sure to provide sufficient explanation for any numbers presented. Consider the following in your overview and conclusions: § In the regression, what variable is the dependent variable and what variable is the independent variable? What do the regression results tell us about IQ scores and GPA?

**Total Possible Score**: 10.00

### Formulates a hypothesis and discusses the relationship between IQ scores and GPA.

Total: 1.40

5 – Exceeds Expectations – (Observation)

Formulates a correct hypothesis and extensively discusses the relationship between IQ scores and GPA.

4 – Above Expectations – (Observation)

Formulates a correct hypothesis and adequately discusses the relationship between IQ scores and GPA.

3 – Meets Expectations – (Observation)

Formulates a hypothesis, either correct or incorrect, and adequately discusses the potential relationship between IQ scores and GPA.

2 – Below Expectations – (Observation)

Formulates an incomplete hypothesis and insufficiently discusses the potential relationship between IQ scores and GPA.

1 – Does Not Meet Expectations – (Observation)

Lacks a formulation of the hypothesis and a discussion of the relationship between IQ scores and GPA.

### Identifies the variables and each of their attributes including discrete or continuous, quantitative or categorical, scale of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio), and independent or dependent.

Total: 1.40

5 – Exceeds Expectations – (Observation)

Identifies both variables and all attributes correctly.

4 – Above Expectations – (Observation)

Fully identifies both variables on three of the four attributes.

3 – Meets Expectations – (Observation)

Adequately identifies both variables on two of the four attributes or fully identifies at least one variable on three to four of the attributes.

2 – Below Expectations – (Observation)

Partially identifies both variables on one of the four attributes or identifies at least one variable on one to two of the four attributes.

1 – Does Not Meet Expectations – (Observation)

Does not correctly identify both variables on any of the four attributes.

### Examines the descriptive statistics, including measures of central tendency and variability, and the suitability of the IQ test for this population (including numbers and percentages of student scores below and above the mean).

Total: 1.40

5 – Exceeds Expectations – (Observation)

Provides an extensive description of the statistics, including measures of central tendency and variability, and the suitability of the IQ test for this population (including numbers and percentages of student scores below and above the mean).

4 – Above Expectations – (Observation)

Provides an extensive description of the statistics, including measures of central tendency and variability, and the suitability of the IQ test for this population (including numbers and percentages of student scores below and above the mean), but lacks detail in some components of the assignment.

3 – Meets Expectations – (Observation)

Provides an adequate description of the statistics, including measures of central tendency and variability, and the suitability of the IQ test for this population (including numbers and percentages of student scores below and above the mean).

2 – Below Expectations – (Observation)

Minimally addresses the required components of the assignment.

1 – Exceeds Expectations – (Observation)

Lacks most of the required components of the assignment.

### Analyzes the results of the correlation, including the nature and strength of the relationship, whether the results support the hypothesis, and what conclusions can be drawn. Identifies issues regarding the sample used or how the data was collected in the interpretation of the data.

Total: 1.40

5 – Exceeds Expectations – (Observation)

Effectively analyzes the results of the correlation, including the nature and strength of the relationship, whether the results support the hypothesis, and what conclusions can be drawn. Thoroughly identifies issues regarding the sample used or how the data was collected in the interpretation of the data.

4 – Above Expectations – (Observation)

Effectively analyzes the results of the correlation, but lacks sufficient detail in some components of the assignment.

3 – Meets Expectations – (Observation)

Presents the results of the correlation with adequate analysis of the required components of the assignment.

2 – Below Expectations – (Observation)

Presents the results of the correlation with minimal analysis of the required components of the assignment.

1 – Does Not Meet Expectations – (Observation)

Lacks analysis of the required components of the assignment.

### Analyzes the results of the regression, including the variables and what the results show regarding IQ scores and GPA.

Total: 1.40

5 – Exceeds Expectations – (Observation)

Effectively analyzes results of the regression, and provides a thorough description of the variables and what the results show regarding IQ scores and GPA.

4 – Above Expectations – (Observation)

Effectively analyzes results of the regression, but lacks sufficient detail in some components of the assignment.

3 – Meets Expectations – (Observation)

Presents the results of the regression with adequate analysis of the required components of the assignment.

2 – Below Expectations – (Observation)

Presents the results of the regression with minimal analysis.

1 – Does Not Meet Expectations – (Observation)

Lacks analysis of the results of the regression.

### Writing and Organization

Total: 1.50

5 – Demonstrates exemplary clarity and organization. The paper contains a well-articulated thesis statement, flawless mechanics, and precise APA formatting.

4 – Demonstrates effective clarity and organization. The paper contains a well-articulated thesis statement, proper mechanics, and correct APA formatting.

3 – Demonstrates adequate clarity and organization. The paper contains a clear thesis statement, adequate mechanics, and mostly correct APA formatting.

2 – Demonstrates some clarity and organization. The paper contains an unclear thesis statement, poor mechanics, and improper APA formatting.

1 – Lacking clarity and organization. The paper lacks a thesis statement, effective mechanics, and proper APA formatting.

### Research

Total: 1.50

5 – Demonstrates exemplary critical analysis of the research materials. The student comprehensively uses varied, scholarly, relevant, and current resources to inform analysis, evaluation, problem-solving, and decision-making.

4 – Demonstrates effective critical analysis of the research materials. The student fully uses varied, scholarly, relevant, and current resources to inform analysis, evaluation, problem-solving, and decision-making.

3 – Demonstrates adequate critical analysis of the research materials. The student adequately uses varied, scholarly, relevant, and current resources to inform analysis, evaluation, problem-solving, and decision-making.

2 – Demonstrates some critical analysis of the research materials. The student partially uses varied, scholarly, relevant, and current resources to inform analysis, evaluation, problem-solving, and decision-making.

1 – Lacking critical analysis of the research materials. The student fails to use varied, scholarly, relevant, and current resources to inform analysis, evaluation, problem-solving, and decision-making.