How are outer join operations different from inner join operations? How is the outer union operation different from unions?

How are outer join operations different from inner join operations? How is the outer union operation different from unions?
How does tuple relational calculus differ from domain relational calculus
CH 9: Mapping EER Model Constructs to Relations
Try to map the relational schema of Figure 6.14 into an ER schema. This is part of a process known as reverse engineering, where a conceptual schema is created for an existing implemented database. State any assumptions you make.
Figure 9.8 shows an ER schema for a database that may be used to keep track of transport ships and their locations for maritime authorities. Map this schema into a relational schema, and specify all primary keys and foreign keys.
CH 10: Database Programming Techniques
What is ODBC? How it is related to SQL/CLI?
List the three main approaches to database programming. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each approach?

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