# Find the probability that a randomly selected representative is female. Find the probability that a randomly selected senator is female.

Case Study: United States Congress in Ch. 3, p. 167 of the 6th edition of the textbook, Elementary Statistics Picturing the World. (Ron Larson and Betsy Farber)

Please read the case study and address questions 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 in the paper. The length of the report should be 3 pages, including a reference page and will be

important to fully explore and discuss a topic.
The Case Study should be written as a report you would submit to your employer if you were requested to do the analysis in the textbook and create a report. It should

NOT read like a homework assignment with numbered questions (or references to questions in the textbook). The reader should be able to understand your analysis without

• Include the biblical/ethical approach to the topic of the case study including any relevant scriptural reference.
• The report should be typed, double-spaced, front side only, in Times New Roman 12- point font.
• Students must follow APA format for proper grammar, spelling, sentence/paragraph structure, and footnote or endnote structure. All cases are to be written in the

third person as a professional paper.
• If sources are used, a reference page is required.
• Titles for each section may be used if the student desires.
• The assignments reference specific questions that should be answered on the topic. The answers do not have to be in the same order as in the textbook but should be

logically organized.

C A S E STUl United States Congress
Congress is made up of the House of Representatives and the Senate. Members of the House of Representatives
serve two-year terms and represent a district in a state. The number of representatives each state has is
determined by population. States with larger populations have more representatives than states with smaller
populations. The total number of representatives is set by law at 435 members. Members of the Senate serve
six-year terms and represent a state. Each state has 2 senators, for a total of 100. The tables show the makeup of
the 113th Congress by gender and political party as of March 4, 2013. There are three vacant seats in the House
of Representatives.
House of Representatives
Political party
Republican Democrat Independent Total
Gender
Male
Female
213
19
142
58
0
0
355
77
Total 9Z9J9Z ozunun 0 432
Senate
Political party
Republican Democrat Independent Total
Male 41 37 2 80
Gender Female 4 16 0 20
Total 45 53 2 100
EXERCISES
1. Find the probability that a randomly selected representative is female. Find the probability that a randomly selected senator is female.
2. Compare the probabilities from Exercise 1.
3. A representative is selected at random. Find the
probability of each event.
(a) The representative is male.
(b) The representative is a Republican.
(c) The representative is male given that the
representative is a Republican.
(d) The representative is female and a Democrat.
(e) Are the events “being female” and “being
a Democrat” independent or dependent
events? Explain.
4. A senator is selected at random. Find the
probability of each event.
(a) The senator is male.
(b) The senator is not a Democrat.
(c) The senator is female or a Republican.
(d) The senator is male or a Democrat.
(e) Are the events “being female” and “being an
Independent” mutually exclusive? Explain.
5. Using the same row and column headings as
the tables above, create a combined table for
Congress.
6. A member of Congress is selected at random. Use
the table from Exercise 5 to find the probability
of each event.
(a) The member is Independent.
(b) The member is female and a Republican.
(c) The member is male or a Democrat.
CASE STUDY 167