# Find the probability that a randomly selected representative is female. Find the probability that a randomly selected senator is female.

Case Study: United States Congress in Ch. 3, p. 167 of the 6th edition of the textbook, Elementary Statistics Picturing the World. (Ron Larson and Betsy Farber)

Please read the case study and address questions 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 in the paper. The length of the report should be 3 pages, including a reference page and will be

important to fully explore and discuss a topic.

The Case Study should be written as a report you would submit to your employer if you were requested to do the analysis in the textbook and create a report. It should

NOT read like a homework assignment with numbered questions (or references to questions in the textbook). The reader should be able to understand your analysis without

having access to the textbook.

• Include the biblical/ethical approach to the topic of the case study including any relevant scriptural reference.

• The report should be typed, double-spaced, front side only, in Times New Roman 12- point font.

• Students must follow APA format for proper grammar, spelling, sentence/paragraph structure, and footnote or endnote structure. All cases are to be written in the

third person as a professional paper.

• If sources are used, a reference page is required.

• Titles for each section may be used if the student desires.

• The assignments reference specific questions that should be answered on the topic. The answers do not have to be in the same order as in the textbook but should be

logically organized.

C A S E STUl United States Congress

Congress is made up of the House of Representatives and the Senate. Members of the House of Representatives

serve two-year terms and represent a district in a state. The number of representatives each state has is

determined by population. States with larger populations have more representatives than states with smaller

populations. The total number of representatives is set by law at 435 members. Members of the Senate serve

six-year terms and represent a state. Each state has 2 senators, for a total of 100. The tables show the makeup of

the 113th Congress by gender and political party as of March 4, 2013. There are three vacant seats in the House

of Representatives.

House of Representatives

Political party

Republican Democrat Independent Total

Gender

Male

Female

213

19

142

58

0

0

355

77

Total 9Z9J9Z ozunun 0 432

Senate

Political party

Republican Democrat Independent Total

Male 41 37 2 80

Gender Female 4 16 0 20

Total 45 53 2 100

EXERCISES

1. Find the probability that a randomly selected representative is female. Find the probability that a randomly selected senator is female.

2. Compare the probabilities from Exercise 1.

3. A representative is selected at random. Find the

probability of each event.

(a) The representative is male.

(b) The representative is a Republican.

(c) The representative is male given that the

representative is a Republican.

(d) The representative is female and a Democrat.

(e) Are the events “being female” and “being

a Democrat” independent or dependent

events? Explain.

4. A senator is selected at random. Find the

probability of each event.

(a) The senator is male.

(b) The senator is not a Democrat.

(c) The senator is female or a Republican.

(d) The senator is male or a Democrat.

(e) Are the events “being female” and “being an

Independent” mutually exclusive? Explain.

5. Using the same row and column headings as

the tables above, create a combined table for

Congress.

6. A member of Congress is selected at random. Use

the table from Exercise 5 to find the probability

of each event.

(a) The member is Independent.

(b) The member is female and a Republican.

(c) The member is male or a Democrat.

CASE STUDY 167