Ethics in Budgeting/Budgetary Slack Norton Company, a manufacturer of infant furniture and carriages, is in the initial stages of preparing the annual budget for 2010. Scott Ford recently joined Norton’s accounting staff and is interested in learning as much as possible about the company’s budgeting process. During a recent lunch with Marge Atkins, sales manager, and Pete Granger, pro- duction manager, Scott initiated the following conversation:
Scott: Since I’m new around here and am going to be involved with the preparation of the annual budget, I’d be interested to learn how the two of you estimate sales and production numbers.
Marge: We start out very methodically by looking at recent history, discussing what we know about current accounts, potential customers, and the general state of consumer spending. Then, we add that usual dose of intuition to come up with the best forecast we can.
Pete: I usually take the sales projections as the basis for my projections. Of course, we have to make an estimate of what this year’s closing inventories will be, and that sometimes is difﬁcult.
Scott: Why does that present a problem? There must have been an estimate of closing invento- ries in the budget for the current year.
Pete: Those numbers aren’t always reliable since Marge makes some adjustments to the sales numbers before passing them on to me.
Scott: What kind of adjustments?
Marge: Well, we don’t want to fall short of the sales projections so we generally give ourselves a little breathing room by lowering the initial sales projection anywhere from 5 to 10 percent.
Pete: So you can see why this year’s budget is not a very reliable starting point. We always have to adjust the projected production rates as the year progresses and, of course, this changes the ending inventory estimates. By the way, we make similar adjustments to expenses by adding at least 10 percent to the estimates; I think everyone around here does the same thing.
Marge Atkins and Pete Granger have described the use of budgetary slack.
Explain why Marge and Pete might behave in this manner, and describe the benefits they expect to realize from the use of budgetary slack.
Explain how the use of budgetary slack can adversely affect Marge and Pete personally, and the organization as a whole.
As a management accountant, Scott Ford believes that the behavior described by Marge and Pete may be unethical and that he may have an obligation not to support this behavior. By citing the specific stand- ards from the IMA’s “Statement of Ethical Professional Practice” (www.imanet.org), explain why the use of budgetary slack may be unethical.