Part I: terms–the terms below may also feature in essay questions, and vice-versa.
law of nature; executive power of the law of nature
property; 2 rules of property (spoilage; scarcity & sufficiency limitation)
the social contract; consent
the General Will vs. the will of all
Part II: essay questions; expect to write about 3 paragraphs, or about one page per question, elaborating your points.
Elaboration: Responses earn all the points possible when they not only present most or all the relevant points or arguments, but also the overall point at the heart of the issue, or its significance as prompted, the big picture understanding, thus suggesting to me that you comprehend it. Responses that present most or all of the relevant points or arguments, but do not communicate that big picture understanding, likely will earn less than all the points. Responses that neither present most nor all of the relevant points or arguments, nor the overall, big picture understanding, likely will earn fewer points. And so on.
> What is Locke expressing in the First Treatise, § 40-43?
> Reflect on Locke as a proto-American political thinker. Describe Locke’s state of nature, its defects, and the two-step progression out of it to the State, what Locke conceives as a kind of umpire or trustee.
> What does Locke mean by ‘property’, why is it a significant concept for him, why is it not unlimited, and how is it connected to personal independence?
> How does Locke understand rebellion and the relationship between the people and the government?
> Discuss the four versions of ‘consent’ presented in class, and the sense of each.
> Discuss how Locke grounds toleration, and why in prudence?
> Present and explain some criticisms of Locke – including his ground-breaking presentation of toleration.
> Describe Rousseau’s state of nature, and the devolution of society from it with its accompanying corruption of man. How does inequality creep in?
> What does Rousseau mean by liberty, and how is this related to equality and inequality? How does Rousseau understand democracy? Why does Rousseau favor direct democracy, and oppose representative democracy?
> What is Rousseau’s understanding of the social contract? What is the General Will? Distinguish the ‘will of all’, of all private wills, from the General Will. What’s meant by, and what justifies ‘forcing someone to be free’?
>Why might one consider Hobbes and Rousseau reflections of each other?
> How does Rousseau understand liberty?