campaign-Marketing homework task

campaign-Marketing homework task

Sample Outline of a Plansbook

The following is a typical outline for a plansbook*. Although you are welcome to vary from this outline, do so carefully because the approach presented here covers all the necessary issues in a relatively logical order. Any variation from this should be done with concern for maintaining a logical presentation and thorough coverage of the issues. The italicized notes are not part of the outline, but are provided as advice to consider when composing that section of the plansbook. IF YOU AREN’T SURE ABOUT SOMETHING, ASK QUESTIONS!!! 1. Executive Summary

  • Keep it short. This should be a very brief (normally 1-page, single-spaced) summary of all major recommendations in your plan.
  • Avoid fluff. Make this informative, telling the client all the main recommendations in a very brief space, such as what message you’ll convey, what objectives you’ve set, what reach and frequency goals, etc.
  • I suggest you use either subheadings or bold-faced keywords to enhance readability.
  1. Situation Analysis – Write well. This should read like a story, not a list of bullet points or an outline. Make it reader-friendly. Use

transitions between sections and subsections, proof it for typos, and avoid pretentious language. – Number every page, even the creative executions, so the reader (including me) can refer you to specific items. – Make it convincing. Cite your sources (e.g., Richards 1990) so the reader knows you’re not inventing facts. I

recommend you use APA Citation Style. Don’t shoot from the hip. And don’t make sweeping generalizations that aren’t supported by fact. Let me repeat: cite your sources!

  • Be tactful. If a fact doesn’t reflect well on the client, don’t ignore it but present it so that it’s not unnecessarily critical. And be sure to point out the strengths, as well as the weaknesses. At the same time, avoid false praise of the client, because that will diminish your credibility.
  • Be logical. Present material in a logical order. – Don’t assume. You don’t know who will read this, so write it assuming the reader knows nothing about the assignment,

the product, or the campaign. – Don’t guess. Don’t say, for example, the consumer is doing something because of X if you don’t know that for a fact.

What you can do is say that it’s POSSIBLE the consumer is doing it because of X. That way you’re letting the client know that you’re not certain.

  • This is analysis only. Any mention of what you recommend should not appear until a later chapter. – Do plenty of research. Then do more. – Don’t be superficial. Look deeper at each issue than other agencies will. That is what will make you the best. One of

the most common mistakes students make is to mention a handful of facts per section, drawing one or two conclusions, and assuming that’s enough. You can’t truly evaluate a Product or a Consumer, etc., in a paragraph or two. If you don’t tell the client something new, that they hadn’t considered, you haven’t gone deep enough.

  • Avoid repetition. If you find you’re repeating yourself, that often is an indicator that you’ve organized the material poorly. Repetition is annoying and it hinders readability by making the document just that much longer than necessary.
  • Client focus. Remember it’s the client and the client’s product that is the theme of this book, it’s not an exercise in self- aggrandizement. Don’t try to impress the client with what you thought and what you did and what you will do, keep the attention on the client and the benefits to be realized by the client.
  • Cite your sources! Don’t state a fact without citing the source. This makes it clear you’re not guessing, and it also makes your conclusions more convincing.

a. Intro paragraph – Frame the scope of your analysis. This is just a recap of the client’s basic request, to help limit the scope of your

analysis. It helps to frame the discussion that follows. Did the client ask you to prepare a one year campaign, a one month campaign, for one product or a whole line of products, to sell a product or to repair a reputation? This sets the scope of your Situation Analysis, so that you don’t need to cover material issues that aren’t relevant to the current needs.

b. Company or Brand History & Evaluation – Keep it relevant. Keep it very brief, unless you’re certain it’s important to your analysis. Don’t waste a busy client’s

time by making him/her read lots of facts he/she already knows. In most cases a paragraph or two may be enough. – Draw conclusions. What did you conclude? What problems do you see? What untapped or unexhausted opportunities

are there? c. Product Evaluation

  • Know the product inside and out. Describe and analyze the product features, benefits, costs, etc. What are its strengths and weaknesses?
  • Keep it relevant. Don’t include features, etc., that you don’t really find useful in your analysis. Keep focused on those that are relevant to the evaluation.
  • Draw conclusions. What did you conclude? What problems do you see? What untapped or unexhausted opportunities are there?

d. Consumer Evaluation – Know the consumer inside and out. Who uses the product? Who doesn’t use it? Why do they use it (or not)? Where

is it used? Where is it purchased? When it is used? Analyze all of this information, looking for problems and opportunities. Be certain to look not only at current users, but also prospective/potential users.

  • Be sure to consider not just those the client thinks are consumers, but also those who aren’t current consumers. Why aren’t they?
  • Keep it relevant. Don’t just list facts to impress the client with your research, provide information you found relevant to your analysis, your understanding of the consumer.
  • Don’t forget the difference between buyers and users.
  • Draw conclusions. What did you conclude? What problems do you see? What untapped or unexhausted opportunities are there?

e. Competitive Evaluation – Know the competitors inside and out. Who is the competition? How do you know? What are their relative strengths

and weaknesses? What have they done that has been successful or unsuccessful? – Go beyond the obvious. Is there any indirect competition? – Keep it relevant. You could talk forever about competitors, but much of what you find will have no impact on your

client’s current situation, so don’t waste the reader’s time on irrelevant material. – Draw conclusions. What did you conclude? What problems do you see? What untapped or unexhausted opportunities

are there? f. Marketing Environment Evaluation

  • Are there market trends you should consider? Will the economy have any impact? Are there laws that restrict your campaign or have an effect on product sales?
  • Draw conclusions. What did you conclude? What problems do you see? What untapped or unexhausted opportunities are there?

g. Problems & Opportunities – This is just a summary of all the problems and opportunities that you found in your analysis, your conclusions. – There should be nothing new here, just a list of those problems & opportunities your analysis already identified.

  1. Marketing Recommendations – Every recommendation should be accompanied by a rationale, explaining the thinking behind that recommendation.

Generally, a rationale should convince the reader (1) that you can achieve this goal, and (2) that it is the best choice of all the goals you might have selected.

  • Ask yourself what recommendations you intend to make that will apply to all marketing efforts or all promotions, such as Brand Image. If it applies that broadly, it probably belongs here instead of in a later chapter.
  • Branding issues normally need to be addressed at this level, since they apply to all aspects of the marketing effort. a. Objectives
  • These are objectives not just for Marketing Communications, but for the entire Marketing Plan. – Every objective must be measurable. Objectives are only measurable if they are specific. Vague promises “to

increase,” for instance, aren’t enough unless you say how much something will increase and you have a way to actually measure the success or failure of that benchmark. They must be S.M.A.R.T.: Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, and Time limited.

  • If you haven’t spelled this out earlier in the book (e.g., in the intro to the Situation Analysis) you MUST incorporate the time-period of the campaign into your goals, effectively setting a deadline by which your objectives will be achieved.
  • There are 3 categories of objective: Target Market, Intended Effects, and Measurement. 1) Target Market
  • This is your FIRST objective! It should always be the first objective. – The largest group of purchasers is not necessarily the best choice. – A target is a group at which you aim your campaign, and one that it is possible to hit within the scope of your

campaign. If the group is too big, you can’t possibly hit everyone in it. Remember: if you aim at everyone, you’ll hit no one.

  • A Target Market must be precise, so when we try to measure effects we’ll know who to survey or otherwise test. If I can’t tell whether a person is or is not in your Target, there’s no way I can measure your effects.
  • Remember, every recommendation must have a rationale. 2) Other Goals (intended effects)
  • Anything along the Lavidge & Steiner (L&S) model, from awareness to purchase. Usually, the most important goal is the bottom line: sales. Other steps along the L&S chain are necessarily included if you set a sales goal, but you may want to state a specific goal concerning one of those steps if it is especially important to your client’s desires.
  • Note, this is awareness, knowledge, liking, preference, etc., of the product or brand. 3) Measurement
  • Provide a very brief summary of how you’ll measure your objectives, then direct the reader back to your Evaluation chapter.

b. Strategy – Objectives are what you hope to achieve, and strategy is how you hope to achieve those objectives. – In this section you cover the Strategy of how you plan to achieve your Objectives with ALL of your marketing tools, not

just advertising & PR. This is where you describe any plan you have that will affect every later section in the book. For example, this is a good place to describe your plan for the brand image, since every form of marketing communication you cover later must convey the same image. But anything you put here SHOULD apply to all later chapters, and not be something narrow.

  • The whole purpose here, for the plansbook, is to show the big picture and where marketing communication (Promotion) fits within that picture.

1) Product – Do you recommend any changes? Do you need to change the package to incorporate a message? What role will the

product play in achieving the marketing goals? For example, do you plan to recommend a promotion that will require the product be produced in a new color, such as offering graduating college students the chance to buy your car in their school colors.

2) Price – Do you recommend any changes? Does the price fit the Brand Image you’re trying to establish or reinforce? What role

will price play in achieving the marketing goals? Are you going to promote special group packages that require the company to create a special pricing package?

3) Distribution – Do you recommend any changes? What role will distribution play in achieving the marketing goals? Don’t use the term

“Place” as a heading, please. – Is there a geographic region that is being overlooked, or one that is a waste of resources? Should the product be sold at

a different type of store, or a specific variety of store? If the product is a website, should the content also be distributed

in print? If it’s a sporting event, should another sports venue be used or another market be considered, or even a different distribution chain for the tickets be added? Even issues such as the amount of shelf space used for the product (e.g., shelving allowances) can be addressed here.

4) Promotion – This does not refer to Sales Promotion, but to all your promotional efforts, including advertising. This is only an

overview of what your promotional mix will be like, explaining where the greatest emphasis will be. – What promotional tools will be used in this campaign, and is one more important? For example, if PR is going to be

the main focus, with advertising merely used as support for the PR campaign, this is the place to explain that. – Anything broad, that affects all forms of promotion, might belong here. – Again, don’t forget that every recommendation must have a rationale.

  1. Advertising Recommendations (I’m separating advertising and PR here, simply because of a few little differences) – Every recommendation should be accompanied by a rationale, explaining the thinking behind that recommendation. – Though not outlined here, it doesn’t hurt to begin the chapter with an intro paragraph, telling the reader what this

chapter is about. a. Objectives

  • Every objective must be measurable. – There are 4 categories of objective: Target Audience, Message, Intended Effects, and Measurement.

1) Target Audience – This is your FIRST objective in this chapter! – This is an objective, so treat it like one. Make it stand out, so the client can quickly find it. – This is either the same target as the one in the previous chapter, or it is a subset of that target. – If it is the same as above, just summarize it and direct the reader to the page where you provide the full description and

rationale. – Just like the Target Market, a Target Audience must be described with precision. It must be absolutely specific and

measurable, so we know whether a person is or is not in the Target. – Don’t describe the lifestyle of the consumer here, except to the extent that it is measurable or serves as rationale.

2) Message – What is the 1 thing (or 2 or 3 things) you want to get across to the target? Keep it simple and straightforward. Don’t

try to stylize it, that’s the creatives’ job. Don’t try to include too much, or nothing will be communicated … K.I.S.S. – Avoid unnecessary wordiness. E.g., don’t start by saying “The message to be directed to the target is ….” That’s not

your message! Your message is “Product X is the biggest on the market,” or some such thing. 3) Intended Effects

  • Awareness, knowledge and liking of the ad (or the message). No other goals are legitimate communication goals, because you can’t be certain that they were caused by your ad. Awareness, knowledge or liking of the product, however, is a marketing objective and not an advertising objective.
  • Remember, they must be measurable! 4) Measurement
  • How will you measure to see if you met your goals? Basically, this discussion belongs in your evaluation chapter, so put a heading here, with a brief description, and direct the reader back to the page where you provide more detail.

b. Creative Strategy – First comes objectives, now comes strategy! – This is the Creative Brief, so none of this needs to be measurable. It’s a contract with the creatives, telling them what is

expected. 1) Target Audience

  • This should be exactly the same as in the Ad Objectives, above. Again, you can summarize it and cite back to the complete description.

2) Key Benefit and Support – The Key Benefit should reflect the Message you listed above. It is the benefit you are promising to consumers. The

Support is sometimes called “permission to believe.” It is a list of reasons you can give the consumer to believe he/she will receive the promised benefit.

3) Objectives – This should reflect the Intended Effects listed above, but not stated in measurable terms.

4) Tone & Manner – Tone is “happy” or “serious” or “funny.” Manner refers to the “requisites,” such as the need to make the ad black &

white, to fit previous campaigns, or the need to include a certain theme song used by the brand in the past. c. Executions

  • First comes objectives, then comes strategy, now comes tactics. – Provide a brief explanation of each, so the reader will understand what you are trying to accomplish. Describe how it

fits the strategy. – Your executions can be either thumbnail or finished, depending upon your strategic approach to the client.

  1. Public Relations & Other Marketing Communications (Sales Promotion, Direct Marketing, etc.) – Each campaign is different, with different problems, so the tools you select will vary. However, today traditional

advertising often takes a back seat to other Marcomm methods, so some of these may actually deserve more space in your plan than the advertising.

  • Every recommendation should be accompanied by a rationale, explaining the thinking behind that recommendation. – Though not outlined here, it doesn’t hurt to begin the chapter with an intro paragraph, telling the reader what this

chapter is about. a. Objectives

  • Note that this follows in the same order with the same basic issues as the Advertising Recommendations. – Every objective must be measurable. – Just like with Advertising, there are 4 categories of objective: Target Audience, Message, Intended Effects, and


1) Target – This is your FIRST objective in this chapter! – Newspapers are NOT your target. Newspaper editors probably aren’t, either. Those are strategies, not targets. The

target is who you want to read the newspaper articles. – If it’s a different target than in a previous section, provide a rationale. If it’s the same, refer the reader back to where

you provided the rationale. Remember that it MUST be either the same as the target market in the Marketing chapter, or some sub-category of that target market.

2) Message – Yes, even a t-shirt give-away or event has a message. Why are you doing it? What are you trying to communicate to

the target? If you can’t come up with a message to write here, perhaps you should reconsider using that promotional technique.

3) Intended Effects – Again, they must be measurable.

4) Measurement – How will you measure to see if you met your goals? Basically, this discussion belongs in your evaluation chapter, so

put a heading here, with a brief description, and direct the reader back to the page where you provide more detail. b. Strategy

1) A complete description of what you will do. – If you intend to sponsor a contest, explain the rules, who will conduct it, where it will be conducted, how much it will

cost, etc. The same holds true with a press release, coupons, promotional product give-aways, premiums, etc. – Don’t skimp on detail. Overkill is better than under-preparation. Being thorough can be the key to impressing the

client, and failure to be thorough can be decidedly unimpressive, especially when your lack of research leads to you overlooking some important issue. The biggest weakness I find in plans is a lack of depth and detail.

  • Here you also can include the sorts of things you provided in the Media section, earlier, such as a flowchart to show the timing of events, etc.
  • Tell the reader the cost of each item as you present it. c. Executions, if any
  • If you have anything that requires an execution (e.g., a t-shirt design, a point-of-purchase display, a press release, etc.) you stand a much better chance of impressing the client if you include it here. This shows you have thought your idea all the way through.
  1. Media Recommendations – Every recommendation should be accompanied by a rationale, explaining the thinking behind that recommendation. – Though not outlined here, it doesn’t hurt to begin the chapter with an intro paragraph, telling the reader what this

chapter is about. – The previous chapters were about message creation, this chapter is about message delivery. – The trend in recent years has been toward integrated marketing communications, which includes integrated media. So

you should include not just traditional advertising in this section, but also PR and direct marketing and promotional products, etc. Everything should be reflected here.

a. Media Vision – This is not an industry-wide practice, but it’s a good idea. Do it. The Vision is the broad perspective of what you want

to achieve, what components are needed, and what sets this plan apart from others. b. Key Media Problem

  • Optional. Only state a key problem if there really is one. Avoid bullshit like “To most efficiently reach the target with a limited budget.” That is a given, true for every media plan ever done in history. A Key Problem is one that is unique to your campaign. IF THERE IS NOTHING UNIQUE, drop this section from your chapter.

c. Target Audience – This should be the same as the Advertising Recommendations, so just briefly state the target and refer the reader back

to the rationale you’ve already provided. You only state the target here so the reader isn’t forced to search for it, to figure out who you’re trying to reach.

  • This is always your first objective. d. Other Objectives
  • Every objective must be measurable. – Provide a Rationale for every objective.

1) Reach – DO NOT categorize these objectives by medium. You don’t have a separate Reach for print and one for TV, for

example, print and TV are simply means by which you’ll achieve your overall Reach. 2) Frequency

  • Like Reach, DO NOT categorize these objectives by medium. 3) Timing/Continuity 4) Others (e.g., geographic, creative, etc.)
  • Go back and review the media plan you did in your Media Planning Class. e. Strategy

1) Media Selections – Why are you using television? Does your target watch TV? Convince me you are making the best choice. Show me

evidence that your target uses your chosen media. Statistics are a good idea. You’re also welcome to talk about how each will contribute to your other objectives (e.g., Reach & Frequency).

2) Vehicle Selections – I suggest you discuss media first, and only after you finish that discussion begin talking about specific vehicles. – Why are you using this particular vehicle?

3) Schedule – Include dates, number of insertions, rating points, costs, etc.

4) Flowchart – This is a nice way for the client to quickly and easily see an overview of your media plan. If you make one that is too

simple, however, it will be uninformative.

  1. Evaluation – Every recommendation should be accompanied by a rationale, explaining the thinking behind that recommendation. – You need to provide a fairly complete explanation of how you will measure all of your goals. If you use a survey, who

will conduct it? Who will be surveyed? How will they be sampled? Exactly when will it be administered? What kinds of questions will be asked? Who will administer it? How much will it cost? You don’t need to design the questionnaire (though that’s alright, and it can impress the client), but you do need to provide enough information that this chapter could be handed to the research company and they’d have a pretty good idea what you want them to do. DO NOT just tell me you’re going to hire an outside company to conduct the research, and that they’ll design the studies. I want YOU to design the studies, and show me you’ve thought about precisely how you’ll measure every objective. You’re the experts, so act the part.

  • Don’t just tell me you’re hiring a subcontractor to do this. You can do that, but you still must tell me how each of these goals will be measured.
  • Media goals are normally pre-measured, in the sense that you select a vehicle by its reach & frequency, so you don’t need to discuss measurement of media goals here unless you’re doing something that requires post-publication evaluation.
  • The most common deficiency in these chapters is lack of detail. Be thorough. a. Marketing Goals
  • I recommend you begin each section by re-stating the objectives, so the client knows what you’re measuring and isn’t forced to search through the book to figure it out.

b. Advertising Goals – Again, begin by re-stating the goals you’ll measure.

c. Sales Promotion, etc., Goals – Again, begin by re-stating the goals you’ll measure.

  1. Budget – When students create a plan, this generally is one of the most ignored aspects of their plan, but to clients this can and

often is the most important aspect. It should not be taken for granted. – Every recommendation should be accompanied by a rationale, explaining the thinking behind that recommendation. If

you’ve already provide that rationale earlier, just cite the page where the reader can find it. a. General Ledger

  • List all of your debits and credits. Provide enough detail. Don’t just group “Media” as one expense, break it down to show how much you are spending on each medium (but not each vehicle).
  • Just because you listed an expense in a previous chapter does not mean you can leave it out here. This is the chapter where ALL the financial details should appear.
  • Don’t forget anything. There is nothing worse than handing the client a budget, then later discovering that you forgot to include some major expense. Being thorough is absolutely critical to this section!
  • Frequently forgotten items: Agency Compensation, Production Costs, Evaluation Costs, Contingency. – Be realistic. In some cases, if you go over budget your agency may end up paying the difference. But if you estimate

your expenses as higher than they actually will be, the client may decide to go to another agency. In other words, do your homework.

b. Pie Chart – This is a nice touch, to make it quick and easy for the reader to see where the bulk of the money is going. This is a

visual representation of your debits. c. Description of Specific Expenses

  • Any expense that you don’t explain elsewhere in the book, explain it here. For example, there probably is not another chapter where you explain the Agency Compensation, so do it here. If you tell me you are going to spend $5,000 on TV production, you’d better explain how you expect to get it done that cheap.
  • Provide a rationale for any expense not justified elsewhere.
  1. Conclusions a. Sell, sell, sell
  • This is the only place in the book that it is appropriate for you to be less than objective, so take advantage of it. This is your one and only chance, in writing, to convince the reader that yours is the best plan. Sell your plan!
  • This is the one place where it is okay to talk about yourselves, but don’t do too much talking about yourselves. People who talk about themselves tend to be bores, and the client isn’t really interested in you.
  • The client isn’t interested in what you did, but rather in what he/she will get out of this. Focus on the client’s benefits. – Try to make it memorable! What is the key idea in your plan – hopefully something that runs throughout your plan –

that sets it apart from the plans developed by other agencies?

  1. Appendices a. Provide anything extra that might be useful to the reader
  • Don’t ever stick a table or graphic into a document without explaining to the reader what they should learn from it. That includes materials you place in an appendix. Explain it in the body of your book, then refer the reader back to the appendix page where it’s located.
  • However, remember that readers seldom look in appendices, unless you give them a reason to do so. b. This is a tool
  • Often there is material that is useful or even important, but placing it within the main body of the book would interrupt the flow of the story you are telling. By placing it in the appendix, you can include it without interrupting that story.
  • This also can help the appearance of your book. If an item would not fit well within the general design of your book, put it in the appendix rather than have it spoil the appearance of one of the major chapters.

c. Include a bibliography – Provide a thorough list of sources, so the client can look them up if you pique his/her interest.

  1. Notes on Appearance & Professionalism a. Attention to detail
  • Even tiny things like the number of blank spaces you put before and after a subheading can affect the reader’s perception of professionalism.
  • Number every page that has any content. – Your client expects attention to detail on his/her account, so this is your chance to prove you have what it takes. – Just remember that there’s no detail too small.

b. Consistency is key #1 – Plan a “look” for your book, and carry it throughout your entire book. – Figure out type size, font, line spacing, color scheme, etc., and use the same plan on everything. Though it’s a simple

example, look at this outline. The headline is one type & size, the major headings are all boldface, the minor headings are not bold, and the note text within each sub-section is italic. This is true in every part of the memo.

c. Readability is key #2 – Do everything imaginable to improve the readability of your book. – Layout can have a major impact on readability. Indenting, outdenting, type size, font, boldfacing, etc., all can affect the

ease with which the readers can find what they want, notice important points, and understand how certain issues relate to others.

  • Serif type tends to be more readable than san serif, so choose your typeface with careful deliberation. Your aesthetic design may demand san serif, but if so then be sure you’re choosing a type size and sufficiently bold face to make it easily readable.
  • Black text on white is far easier to read than white text on black. – ALL CAPS IS HARDER TO READ than lower case text or Text That Mixes Upper And Lower Case. – Don’t skimp on headings & subheadings. They can improve readability. – As headings descend in importance, they also should descend in prominence. In other words, major headings should be

bigger or bolder or otherwise stand out the most, first subheadings should be less prominent, second subheadings (those subordinate to first subheadings) should be even less prominent. This helps the reader to know which headings go together and which ones start new topics.

  • Don’t write excessively long paragraphs, because it’s easy for a reader to lose their spot. But also don’t write in excessively short paragraphs, because then it’s harder to follow which points are closely related to others… paragraphs can help readers organize things in their own minds.
  • Make the most important points jump out at the reader. d. Grammar, Spelling & Punctuation is key #3
  • Poor grammar or writing style, typographical errors, etc., can immediately discredit your work. It looks unprofessional. Would you run a full-page ad in Time magazine that had a typo in the headline? Then why would you provide a book, an ad for your agency, to a client when the book still has such errors in it?

e. Art direction – If you have no sense of the aesthetic, find someone to help you. Make it look nice. – If you can’t make it visually impressive, at least make it clean and neat. Simple can be elegant. – Use white space and use illustrations, so that every page doesn’t look the same: one mass of grey text. – There’s an old saying: what it lacks in substance, make up for in form. Form, including visual attractiveness, can affect

a client’s perception of the substance, so it’s not unimportant. – Agencies – whether advertising or PR or marketing – tend to live on their image. And image is largely a matter of

creativity. So the appearance of a plan should show creative flair. – Avoid the common. Times Roman font is the single most common computer font, so I recommend you avoid using it as

your primary typeface. – Use some variation. You don’t need to put everything in plain black 12 point type. That was fine back in the days of a

typewriter, but today we can make documents look as if they were professionally printed, and that’s precisely what you should do! That means first-level headings can be a larger type size than second-level headings, or one can be bold and another italic, or one can be blue and another green, etc., etc.

  • Use some variation (again). Pages can be laid out in single column, double column, triple column, etc. The whole idea is to make it visually interesting and NOT COMMON. That doesn’t mean you should make it schizophrenic, with one page in single column, another in double column, and the next in triple. Anything can be overdone. But make it interesting.
  • It’s usually a bad idea to do the entire book in a single font. Headings and subheadings may use a different font than the main body of the text. This can make the plan look more aesthetically pleasing and, perhaps more important, it can enhance readability if done properly. However, choose those fonts carefully and don’t over diversify. Too many different type faces can look even more amateurish than using a single typeface.
  • Use graphics such as pictures, table, charts, and even clip art, to break up the look of a page and make it more visually interesting and less tedious to read.
  • Text should have room to breathe. If you’re, e.g., drawing a box around text, be sure to leave enough white space between the text and the line around it. Also, don’t run text too close to the “gutter” where the document will be bound. There’s nothing worse than having holes punched through the text because it was too close to the binding.
  • Be sure any graphic images you use are not rasterized (have jagged edges). It looks terrible, and it’s almost always avoidable.

f. Writing style – Writing style goes far beyond grammar, spelling & punctuation, to matters of good taste. – Use active rather than passive voice in most cases (e.g., not “the market has been stable,” but rather “the market was

stable.”) – Bias: Don’t tell the reader what you think (“our agency feels that…”), because that immediately suggests bias.

Instead, lead the reader to draw the same conclusion that you or your agency drew, by showing how the facts fit together to allow for only one logical conclusion.

  • Avoid jargon, contractions, and (unless you first define them) acronyms.
  • Use common language, don’t try to impress readers with your vocabulary. Most people who try to impress, end up using a word or phrase incorrectly and, in the end, make the kind of impression they’d rather avoid.
  • A paragraph should never have fewer than 2 sentences. Only journalists write in 1-sentence paragraphs. – Parsimony: never use a long word where a short word will serve the same purpose, and never write a sentence longer

than it needs to be. And by all means, don’t B.S. g. Tables & figures

  • Numbers: tables or vertical lists of numbers should always be aligned on the decimal point, not left or right justified. – Don’t show more detail than needed by the reader or needed to make your point. Simpler tables are easier to read. – Aesthetics are important here, too. Don’t crowd the information in the table by drawing a border so close that it

touches the numbers or information, leave a little breathing space. h. Follow conventions

  • There are norms in the publishing industry, and those norms have conditioned readers to expect certain things in “professional” publications. This is a variation on Consistency, because it is a question of being consistent with publishing conventions.
  • Underlining is almost never used in publishing. Bold and italic are used instead. – Figures turned sideways always face right. – The book title on the binding edge always reads from top to bottom. – Avoid orphaned headings, where you have a heading at the bottom of a page but the text following the heading doesn’t

appear until the next page. – There are too many to list, but if you’re not certain you’re doing it right, look in some published books. – Have some friends glance through your book and look for anything that doesn’t seem quite right. We’re all conditioned

to expect those conventions, so even someone outside of advertising may be able to spot such a mistake. i. Cover

  • Keep in mind that this book becomes a permanent record, and may be placed on a shelf next to other plans from other agencies and for other years. So, be sure the cover had all the key information on it: (a) that it’s a marketing communication campaign plan, (b) the time period covered, (c) the product/service/brand being promoted, and (d) your agency name/logo.
  • Make the client’s name/brand far more dominant than your agency’s name/logo. It’s the client that’s important.
  1. Other notes a. Objectives vs. Strategy vs. Tactics
  • Objectives are what you expect to achieve. This includes things like whom you’ll reach, with what message, and with what impact.
  • Strategy is how you will achieve those objectives. What creative approach you’ll take, what media you’ll use, what tools you’ll apply to the problem are all the decisions that you present as part of your strategy.
  • Tactics are the details, including the executions. The actual ads, the creative, is just one example of tactics A press release may be one tactic.. If you plan an event, the details of that event, where it will be held, on what date, with what music, at what cost, are all tactics.
  • There are innumerable ways to structure a campaign plansbook. The outline provided here is a good basic starting point, but it should be adapted to the product or service you are using. Consequently, the titles or headings used here are not necessarily good ones for you to use in your campaign, they are simply intended to provide you with an idea of how to put your book together. You can (and perhaps should) adapt this structure to your product and client. The key is that it should be logical, leading from point A to point B, and it should not leave out any important information. If you are uncertain whether your change is a good one, ask. If you don’t want to ask, don’t make any changes.

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