# Analysis and Presentation of Data 1. Which procedure for finding a regression line keeps errors of estimate to a minimum?

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Which of the following statements best reflects the meaning of this line?

A. There are nine items in the data set, whose first digit is five.

B. The values in the display are 95, 85, 75, 65, and 45; 95 appears four times and 85 appears twice.

C. The numbers in the data set range from 4 to 9.

D. The variance in the data set is 5.

3. Which of the following can be determined using a frequency distribution?

A. The shape of the variable’s distribution

B. The systematic variance associated with the sample

C. How close a sample comes to the null hypothesis

D. Whether a systematic association exist between two variables

4. Which of the following requires ordinal data?

A. Cramer’s V

B. Kruskal’s tau

C. Kendall’s tau b and tau c

D. Chi-square

5. Database development begins with

A. data entry.

B. statistical analysis.

C. editing.

D. hypothesis formulation.

6. Which of the following is a null hypothesis?

A. The mean age in a household is predictive of the amount of money spent on food each month.

B. Families with two children have significantly higher grocery bills than families with just one child.

C. Grocery bills vary according to the number of meals eaten outside the home.

D. There’s no difference in the monthly grocery bills of families with one child and families with two children.

7. Which of the following choices for displaying data will include values for which no observations occurred?

A. Boxplot

B. Heretical triangle

C. Stem-and-leaf display

D. Bar chart

8. Which of the following is true of relationships among nominal measures?

A. When there’s no relationship at all, the coefficient should be 1.

B. When there’s no relationship at all, the coefficient should be 0.

C. When there’s complete dependency, the coefficient should be negative.

D. When there’s complete dependency, the coefficient should be positive.

9. Which term below refers to a conversational style of oral presentation that relies on minimal notes?

A. Executive summary

B. Briefing

C. Extemporaneous presentation

D. Formal presentation

10. In what section are complex tables, statistical tests, and supporting documents placed?

A. Methodology

B. Appendix

C. Introduction

D. Findings

11. Which of the following statistical techniques uses two or more independent, metric variables to classify observations into categories of a nominal, dependent variable?

A. Discriminant analysis

B. Factor analysis

C. Multiple regression

D. Multivariate analysis of variance

12. A _______ is equal to the observation minus the mean.

A. quartile

B. deviation score

C. range

D. standard deviation

13. Which of the following tests is most appropriate for examining differences in the average number of hours spent viewing television among four different age groups?

A. McNemar test

B. Z test

C. t-test

D. ANOVA

14. Which of the following hypotheses is best examined with a correlation analysis?

A. Income, geographic location, and gender are predictive of yearly clothing expenditures.

B. Income level is related to average yearly clothing expenditures.

C. Men differ from women on average yearly clothing expenditures.

D. Clothing expenditures are higher in Northern states and lower in Southern and Southwestern states.

15. Which of the following best explains how the F ratio examines differences among groups?

A. The variability attributable to a treatment is compared to the variability arising from random error.

B. The critical F is compared to the critical t.

C. The probability of making a Type I error is compared to the probability of making a Type II error.

D. The standard deviation for each group is subtracted from the mean of all groups

16. The creation of _______ lies at the heart of multidimensional scaling.

A. part-worth functions

B. pair-wise tables

C. covariance matrices

D. perceptual maps

17. Which of the following is most appropriately displayed with a frequency table?

A. What percentage of people prefer Hunt’s brand ketchup?

B. How much explanatory value comes from the study’s variables?

C. What is the relationship between gender and brand preference?

D. Is advertising more effective in newspapers or magazines?

18. Which of the following statistical techniques identifies patterns underlying combinations of the original variables capable of summarizing the original set?

A. Cluster analysis

B. Discriminant analysis

C. Multivariate analysis of variance

D. Factor analysis

19. Jack is performing a factor analysis on 20 items relevant to perceptions of service quality. Using a principal components approach, the following Eigenvalues were produced: 3.45, 2.78, 1.33, 1.24, 1.01, .567, .443, and .223. How many factors should Jack retain based on these Eigenvalues?

A. 5

B. 3

C. 2

D. 8

20. Which of the following requires at least the ordinal level of data?

A. Kruskal’s tau

B. Nonparametric tests

C. Cramer’s V

D. Chi-square