121. 360º performance appraisal systems require careful planning and consume farmore time than othe

121. 360º performance appraisal systems require careful planning and consume farmore time than other appraisal systems, but putting the system online can reducethe time needed for the process.SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS122. The identification, measurement, and management of human performance inorganizations is referred to as _______.123. _______ is an aspect of performance that determines effective job performance.124. An appraisal format that asks supervisor to compare an employee’s performanceto the performance of other employees doing the same job is referred to as _______.125. _______ is an appraisal format that asks supervisors to make judgments about anemployee’s performance based solely on performance standards.126. An appraisal tool that asks a supervisor to make judgments about workercharacteristics that tend to be consistent and enduring is referred to as a(n) _______.127. A(n) _______ is an appraisal tool that asks managers to assess a worker’sbehavior.128. A(n) _______ is an appraisal tool that asks managers to assess the resultsachieved by workers.281Part IV Employee Development129. _______ is a goal-directed approach to performance appraisal in which workersand their supervisors set goals together for the upcoming evaluation period.130. An error in performance appraisals that reflects consistent biases on the part ofthe rater is referred to as _______.131. _______ is the degree to which the performance ratings given by varioussupervisors in an organization are similar.132. A type of training that present supervisors with fictitious examples of workerperformance, asks the supervisor to evaluate the workers in the examples, and thentells them what their ratings should have been is referred to as _______.133. A(n) _______ is a performance appraisal system in which workers ratethemselves.134. A(n) _______ is a performance appraisal system in which workers at the samelevel in the organization rate one another.135. A performance appraisal system in which workers review their supervisors iscalled a(n) _______.136. The combination of peer, subordinate, and self-review is referred to as _______.282Part IV Employee DevelopmentESSAY QUESTIONS137. Performance appraisal systems may be built on a relative or absolute judgmentbasis. Discuss what these two bases are and the relative merits and disadvantagesof each.138. Some performance appraisal tools focus on what is measured rather than howthe judgment is made. Describe three measurement-focused appraisal tools,enumerating the advantages and disadvantages of each.283Part IV Employee Development139. Discuss how rater errors and personal bias influence the performance appraisalprocess and any possible solutions for these influences on the performanceappraisal process.140. Managers face a number of challenges when conducting performance appraisals,such as: the influence of liking, organizational politics, and legal issues. Discusshow these challenges affect the performance appraisal process and any solutionsfor these challenges.284Part IV Employee Development141. Group performance appraisals are becoming more important in the U.S. businesscommunity, since teams are becoming increasingly common in the workplace. Atwhat two levels should performance be appraised and how should these bemeasured?142. Performance management is a critical final element of the performance appraisalprocess. Explain how effective managers help employees improve performance.

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